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An early server computing version of the system was released in as a technology preview. It was followed by several more official server-based releases. Server functionality has instead been offered as an add-on for the desktop system since The idea was to offer a single "overdesigned" hardware platform on which third-party vendors could build practically any product, reducing the otherwise heavy workload of developing a NuBus -based expansion card. The first version of the system was ready for use in February It was not very competitive for its time, due in part to the crowded Unix market and Macintosh hardware lacking high-end design features present on workstation -class computers.

The Macintosh Application Environment MAE was a software package introduced by Apple in that allowed users of certain Unix -based computer workstations to run Apple Macintosh application software. The last version, MAE 3. It was discontinued on May 14, In the summer of , the community-led MkLinux Developers Association took over development of the operating system.

MkLinux is short for "Microkernel Linux," which refers to the project's adaptation of the Linux kernel to run as a server hosted atop the Mach microkernel. MkLinux is based on version 3. Star Trek as in "to boldly go where no Mac has gone before" was a relatively unknown secret prototype beginning in , whose goal was to create a version of the classic Mac OS that would run on Intel -compatible x86 personal computers. A team consisting of four from Apple and four from Novell was able to get the Macintosh Finder and some basic applications such as QuickTime , running smoothly on the x86 architecture.

The project was canceled a year later in early , but some of the code was reused later when porting the Mac OS to PowerPC. Taligent a portmanteau of "talent" and "intelligent" was the name of an object-oriented operating system and the company dedicated to producing it. The development process never worked, and Taligent is often cited as an example of a project death march.

Apple pulled out of the project in before the code had been delivered.


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Copland was a project at Apple to create an updated version of the classic Mac OS. It was to have introduced protected memory , preemptive multitasking and a number of new underlying operating system features, yet still be compatible with existing Mac software. As originally planned, a follow-up release known as "Gershwin" would add multithreading and other advanced features.

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New features were added more rapidly than they could be completed, and the completion date slipped into the future with no sign of a release. In , Apple decided to cancel the project outright and find a suitable third-party system to replace it. Apple also developed the Newton OS for its Newton personal digital assistant from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Throughout the early s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent , Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned. Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number "10". It is therefore correctly pronounced "ten" in this context. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility.

Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API ; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X. As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS , with applications being added and removed. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the. Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products.

It later began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store. Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from onwards. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X In , Mac OS X In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion , Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS, at the same time simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use.

A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler In , with the release of OS X That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall , and design was changed towards a more minimal direction. From onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from onwards. In , with the release of macOS Apple previewed macOS Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin.

With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other.

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He criticized the case insensitivity of file names, a design made worse when Apple extended the file system to support Unicode. As a result, macOS on current Macs must do byte swap when it reads file system data. The Darwin subsystem in macOS is in charge of managing the file system, which includes the Unix permissions layer. In and , two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in macOS, while Rob Griffiths suggested that some users may even have to reset permissions every day, a process which can take up to 15 minutes.

The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design: For the Apple—Intel transition , it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary , which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines.

Cocoa and Carbon. Since , Apple has promoted its new programming language Swift as the preferred language for software development on Apple platforms. This caused much outcry among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X: Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux can be recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and technical software. Apple and others have provided versions of the X Window System graphical interface which can allow these applications to run with an approximation of the macOS look-and-feel.

Applications can be distributed to Macs and installed by the user from any source and by any method such as downloading with or without code signing , available via an Apple developer account or through the Mac App Store , a marketplace of software maintained by Apple by way of a process requiring the company's approval.

Apps installed through the Mac App Store run within a sandbox , restricting their ability to exchange information with other applications or modify the core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install apps with confidence that they should not be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage due to blocking the Mac App Store's use for professional applications that require elevated privileges.

Apple produces macOS applications, some of which are included and some sold separately. Numerous other developers also offer software for macOS. Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple.

Except for features requiring specific hardware such as graphics acceleration or DVD writing, the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware. As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those, since the Intel transition are available for purchase, [] some technology-capable groups have developed software to install macOS on non-Apple computers.

These are referred to as Hackintoshes , a portmanteau of the words "hack" and "Macintosh". On June 6, , Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition.

Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers supported building universal binaries that would run on either architecture. PowerPC-only software is supported with Apple's official emulation software, Rosetta , though applications eventually had to be rewritten to run properly on the newer versions released for Intel processors.

Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and Intel. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel, it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work.

Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped following the transition. One of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua , a graphical user interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology.

New interface elements were integrated, including sheets dialog boxes attached to specific windows and drawers, which would slide out and provide options. The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs , brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1.


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According to Siracusa, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design. Apple has continued to change aspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar.

Since , Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays , and macOS and its APIs have extensive support for resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's support for the technology as superior to that on Windows. The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts.

The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version The Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS. It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any other applications. Spotlight , a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.

Features introduced in version The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency. In more recent releases, Apple has developed support for emoji characters by including the proprietary Apple Color Emoji font. There are 38 system languages available in macOS for the user at the moment of installation; the system language is used throughout the entire operating system environment. Until OS X In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac App Store application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different than the download mechanism used when purchasing an App Store application.

In macOS Prior to its release, Mac OS X After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse. The "PB", as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback.

Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. Mac OS X v In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than new features.

The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, , Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking support for the Classic environment. It brought more than new features. The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines.

New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed, [] full support for bit applications including graphical applications , new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X , Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: The It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.

This release removed Rosetta , making it incompatible with PowerPC applications. Documents auto-save by default. OS X It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center , support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app. It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen.

Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ , It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a bit Intel processor. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7 , intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors. Similar to Mac OS X Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection.

Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro apps. The major change under the hood is the switch to the Apple File System , which is optimized for solid-state storage used in most new Mac computers. As of July , macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system in use on the World Wide Web following Microsoft Windows , with a 4.

It is the second most widely used desktop operating system for web browsing , after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux which has 1. Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android. In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that have affected Microsoft Windows users. Worms , as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in , which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware.

At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions were able to install without user input. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated , users were affected. As a devices company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through events for developers.

In larger scale advertising campaigns, Apple specifically promoted macOS as better for handling media and other home-user applications, and comparing Mac OS X especially versions Tiger and Leopard with the heavy criticism Microsoft received for the long-awaited Windows Vista operating system. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the current Apple operating system for Mac computers. For pre versions, see Classic Mac OS. For other uses, see OSX disambiguation. Screenshot of the macOS Mojave desktop in dark mode.

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Macintosh operating systems

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The sights can be breathtaking, but the roads are potholed and incomplete, and sometimes you have to get out and push. There are a few magnificent modern additions - Rendezvous, AppleScript Studio, for example - but in places the modern Apple archaeologists seem to have forgotten their ancestors techniques, and have resorted to inferior contemporary methods such as the Windows bodge of using three letter extensions for identifying the file type.

Once you reboot, you'll notice that Apple has abandoned the light and airy Aqua interface for the darker, heavier brushed-metal look of iTunes. University of Wisconsin.

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